ls Displays everything in the current directory
ls -a Displays all files, including hidden
ls -l Displays all files, along with the size and timestamp
tar -zxpf <file.tar.gz> Uncompresses tar.gz files
tar -xpf <file.tar.gz> Uncompresses .tar files
gunzip <file> Uncompresses .gz files
cp <file> Copies a file to a new file
mv <file> Moves a file to a new file, or rename
mkdir <dir> Creates a directory
rmdir <dir> Deletes a directory
rm <file> Deletes a file
rm -rf <dir> Deletes a directory
cd <dir> Moves to a directory
cd .. Moves to a lower directory
cd ~ Moves to your home directory
cd – Moves to the previous directory
pwd Displays the current directory
pico <file> Edits a file
ftp <site> Connect to a FTP server
lynx <site> View a webpage
df Displays the hard drive stats
quota Displays your quota
uptime Displays the uptime of the server
uname -a Displays the operating system stats
whoami Displays your info
who Displays others connected to the server
last Displays the last login
whereis <file> Tells where a file is located
mail Check your email
ps -x Displays processes your running
ps -a Displays all processes running
ps -ux Displays running processes, with CPU/Memory usage
kill <pid> Kills a process
kill -9 <pid> Kills an eggdrop process
killall <program> Kills all running process of the same type
whatis <command> Description of commands
man <command> Displays help on the command
nano Same as Pico
Top – gives an overall view of what is going on with the server including memory usage, serve load and running processes “q” to exit top
sar -q gives a report of the process list, 1 minute and 5 minute average load every 10 minutes since midnight server time
tar -zcf filename.tar.gz file
Tars up the file or directory of your choice, replace filename.tar.gz with the name you want your tar file to have…with the tar.gz extension on the end and replace file with the file or directory you want to tar up. Can also use a path/to/file for both.
updatedb – Updates the locate/search DB.

netstat -n -p
Useful to see who is connected to your server, this also resolves hostnames to IP addresses and the -p switch shows you what each person connected is doing and provides a PID for it if there is one… useful if you need to kill something

find / -user username
Replace username with a username of one of your account to find all the files that belong to them. Also useful to add the |more switch so you can scroll one screen at a time. Ever have a client who seems to show a lot more files than are actually in their home directory? This is how you find those files and fix them. Common problem is cpmove files that don’t get properly deleted and get added to a users account.

/scripts/pkgacct2 username
Replace username with a user on your system. This should be done from the home directory. Useful for manually backing up an account if whm copy account doesn’t work. Then just move (mv) the file to a home directory accessible via the web and
chown user.user filename
and chmod to 750 or 755 and you can wget it from a different server if need be.

/scripts/restorepkg username
Once you’ve got the file and need to unpack it you use this command. The file should be in the /home directory to use this though. Remember folks…. username…. not cpmove-username.tar.gz

crontab -e
edit the crontab file and see what is set to run in there.

Such as tar –help, similar to man it digs up info on any given command.

tail -10 filename
gives you the last 10 lines of a file. Can change the # to whatever you want.

Couple of Brians now

cp -R fileordirectory path/to/destination.
the -R allows you to copy an entire directory to somewhere else.

kill -9
not just for eggdrops… it’s called a “hard kill” and handy for killing off any stubborn process that refuses to die.

can also use locate or find (although locate is faster)

not just for killing programs.. you can also killall <user> to kill all processes being run by a user. Handy if you have an abuser eating up system resources.


service (service name) restart

Stop a service:
service (service name) stop

Start a service:
service (service name) start

Status (doesn’t work on all):
service (service name) status

On a RedHat CPanel server, here are the useful services:

Root crontab:

crontab -e

To edit a users cron jobs

crontab -u username -e

Replace username with the actual username of the client you want to edit.